Blood sugar levels are one of the most important indicators of the full function of erythrocytes, nerve cells and the overall health of the body. Changes in these levels affect many organs in the human body. Normal blood sugar levels are considered to be 3.3 to 5.5 millimoles per liter. This means that in a healthy body, blood sugar levels within certain limits do not rise too much after eating and do not fall too much when starving. The term “glycemia” is a combination of the word glucose – denoting the level of blood sugar + “emia” – denoting the state of the blood.
The three main levels in the study are:
Hypoglycaemia – low (low) blood sugar.
Hyperglycemia – high (high) blood sugar.
Normoglycemia – normal blood sugar levels.
The body’s ability to use glucose is called glucose tolerance.
When blood sugar does not rise too much after a meal and returns to normal for a short time, it becomes clear that glucose tolerance is normal.
With impaired glucose tolerance, blood sugar rises more after a meal, but does not fall fast enough in the hours after a meal. Then we can talk about a pre-diabetic condition. If the blood sugar is high, it is diabetes. The amount of sugar in the blood is measured and expressed in millimoles per liter of blood. In high blood sugar – Hyperglycaemia, blood sugar levels are above 6.7 mmol / l before meals and above 8.9 mmol / l two hours after meals. This condition is related to the hormone insulin, which is produced by the body. The inability to regulate blood sugar levels poses a number of dangers to nerve cells, blood vessels and overall health.
Here are some of the symptoms that can occur due to high values:
- Occurrence of unquenchable thirst, as well as frequent urination;
- Increased feeling of hunger, even after eating;
- Blurred vision and headache;
- Feeling tired and tired;
- Reduced concentration;
- Chills, sweating, dry skin and itching;
- Numbness of the lips and / or limbs;
- Breath of acetone in the oral cavity;
- Unmotivated irritability and even nausea.
Although blood sugar levels in each organism are strictly individual and are related to diet and hereditary predisposition, the precautions that could be taken in case of high values are mainly related to proper diet, intake of sufficient vitamins and minerals through food, activity and movement and in more severe cases, with additional intake of insulin, which is injected and broken down in the stomach.
Psychological and emotional activity also uses higher energy resources.
Diabetes can occur in some pregnant women. It is called gestational and usually passes after birth.
Due to the serious risk of damage to the kidneys, blood vessels, nervous system and vision, people diagnosed with diabetes should undergo treatment under mandatory medical supervision.
Hypoglycaemia – low (low) blood sugar.
Glucose is the body’s main source of energy for over 50% of cells. Fat is in second place. Glucose is obtained through food and after the breakdown of various carbohydrates, circulating in all body fluids and storing glycogen in various tissues. Without enough glucose, the body is also unable to function properly. When the balance of nutrition is disturbed or in the presence of overload, in combination with starvation and deficiency of vitamins and hormones, a state of hypoglycemia can occur. The first common symptoms that sometimes appear suddenly and last for a few minutes are:
- Shivering and palpitations;
- Pale face and restlessness;
- Excessive sweating.
Hypoglycaemia can be treated quickly, as it is associated with carbohydrate intake. At the onset of the first symptoms can be responded to by taking a spoonful of honey, fruit juice or something salty. Initially, this may regulate blood sugar levels. If the hypoglycaemic attack continues to occur, the symptoms may be more severe:
- Double or blurred vision;
- Irritability, nervousness, aggression, anxiety;
- Numbness, coldness and stiffness of the skin;
- Headache and tremor;
- Sleep disorders and constant feeling of exhaustion;
- Feeling of confusion and dizziness, change in mental status.
The blood sugar values that are accepted as normal are:
From 4.0 to 7.0 mmol / l, – in a state of hunger / before meals;
5.0 to 8.0 mmol / l, two hours after a meal;
Not less than 6.0 mmol / l before sleep;
The pancreas is responsible for regulating the amount of glucose in the blood. It releases three important hormones – insulin, amylin and glucagon.
The first two regulate excess levels, the third is activated in case of deficiency and signals to the body that more is needed in the liver. In cases of dysfunction of this gland, due to the intake of large amounts of confectionery, spicy foods, alcohol, the concentration of sugars can rise sharply.
When taken in moderation, foods that can have a beneficial effect on blood sugar levels are:
All vegetables rich in fiber and vitamins such as cabbage, turnips, beets, carrots, zucchini, broccoli. Also suitable are meat and fish that do not contain fat, eggs, cottage cheese and dairy products, nuts, low-fructose fruits: blueberries, raspberries, strawberries, as well as apples, apricots, oranges, pineapple, lemon, kiwi, pears , peaches, but their intake is desirable to occur in the first half of the day and not to exceed 200 grams per day. In addition to proper nutrition, sun exposure is important for insulin synthesis. Proven by medicine is the fact that exercise lowers blood sugar levels, but also regulates them in the presence of hypoglycemia. The combination of sports or outdoor exercise, with enough mineral water or tea is recommended for everyone.